Squid on Solaris

Pre-Built Binary Packages

Squid-2 is distributed as part of the standard Solaris packages repository. To install it, simply use (as root)

 pkg install SUNWsquid

Configuration files will then be stored in /etc/squid, user-accessible executables such as squidclient in /usr/bin, while the main squid executable will be in /usr/squid/sbin.

http://www.opencsw.org/packages/squid/ also hosts binary Squid packages.


 pkg-get -i squid


In order to successfully build squid on Solaris, a complete build-chain has to be available.


In order to successfully build squid, a few GNU-related packages need to be available. Unfortunately, not all of the software is available on a stock Solaris install.

What you need is:

 pkg install SUNWgnu-coreutils SUNWgtar SUNWgm4 SUNWgmake SUNWlxml  SUNWgsed

and of course a compiler. You can choose between

 pkg install SUNWgcc


 pkg install sunstudioexpress SUNWbtool

com_err.h: warning: ignoring #pragma ident

This problem occurs with certain kerberos library headers distributed with Solaris 10. It has been fixed in later release of the kerberos library.

{X} Unfortunately the /usr/include/kerberosv5/com_err.h system-include file sports a #pragma directive which is not compatible with gcc.

There are several options available:

  1. Upgrading your library to a working version is the recommended best option.
  2. Applying a patch distributed with Squid ( contrib/solaris/solaris-krb5-include.patch ) which updates the krb5.h header to match the one found in later working krb5 library releases.

  3. Editing com_err.h directly to change the line

#pragma ident   "%Z%%M% %I%     %E% SMI"


#if !defined(__GNUC__)
#pragma ident   "%Z%%M% %I%     %E% SMI"

3.1 -enable-ipf-transparent support

{X} Unfortunately the /usr/include/inet/mib2.h header required for IPF interception support clashes with Squid-3.1 class definitions. This has been fixed in the 3.2 series.

For 3.1 to build you may need to run this class rename command in the top Squid sources directory:

find . -type f -print | xargs perl -i -p -e 's/\b(IpAddress\b[^.])/Squid$1/g

Squid-2.x and older

The following error occurs on Solaris systems using gcc when the Solaris C compiler is not installed:

/usr/bin/rm -f libmiscutil.a
/usr/bin/false r libmiscutil.a rfc1123.o rfc1738.o util.o ...
make[1]: *** [libmiscutil.a] Error 255
make[1]: Leaving directory `/tmp/squid-1.1.11/lib'
make: *** [all] Error 1

Note on the second line the /usr/bin/false. This is supposed to be a path to the ar program. If configure cannot find ar on your system, then it substitutes false.

To fix this you either need to:

  • Add /usr/ccs/bin to your PATH. This is where the ar command should be. You need to install SUNWbtool if ar is not there. Otherwise,

  • Install the binutils package from the GNU FTP site. This package includes programs such as ar, as, and ld.

Building from VCS

If you wish to build from the repository you also need the relevant VCS system, which can either be:

pkg install SUNWcvs
  • Bazaar (see BzrInstructions for Squid-3 repository details.

    • You need to manually download bzr from http://bazaar-vcs.org/ and install it. It's simple, and its prerequisites (python) are present in the base setup.


In addition to the standard building requirements, in build-farm deployment scenarios you also need:

pkg install SUNWperl584usr

and optional, but useful

pkg install ccache

and CPPunit to be installed from source: you can find it at http://sourceforge.net/projects/cppunit/. In order to build it you'll have to patch the file include/cppunit/portability/FloatingPoint.h adding a include directive:

#include <ieeefp.h>

... And then you go on building the usual way :)


64-bit Solaris 9 with Squid 3.1 suddenly thinks local IP is :: or zero

When compiled 64-bit the  %>a  and  %>p  logformat directives log :: and 0 respectively, and the DNS source filter starts rejecting DNS responses as it thinks their src IP is ::.

  • {i} This happens because Solaris 9 wrongly defined part of the universal IP address information structure struct addrinfo. We rely on this part for receiving remote IPs.

Fixes for this problem include:

  • Changing to Solaris 10
  • Upgrading to a Squid-3.1.9 bug fix snapshot.
  • Using a 32-bit operating system build of Solaris 9

Reference: http://bugs.squid-cache.org/show_bug.cgi?id=3057

Your cache is running out of filedescriptors

Solaris 9 and 10 support "unlimited" number of open files without patching. But you still need to take some actions as the kernel defaults to only allow processes to use up to 256 with a cap of 1024 filedescriptors, and Squid picks up the limit at build time.

  • Before configuring Squid run  ulimit -HS -n $N where $N is the number of filedescriptors you need to support).

ulimit -HS -n $N
./configure ...
make install
  • {i} Be sure to run make clean before ./configure if you have already run ./configure as the script might otherwise have cached the prior result.

Make sure your script for starting Squid contains the above ulimit command to raise the filedescriptor limit while Squid is running.

ulimit -HS -n $N

You may also need to allow a larger port span for outgoing connections. This is set in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/. For example:

echo 1024 32768 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range

Squid cannot produce core dumps on Solaris 10 and above

If squid user has ulimit -c unlimited, squid runs from root but can't produce core dumps, check this:

# coreadm
     global core file pattern: /var/core/core.%f.%p
     global core file content: default
       init core file pattern: /var/core/core.%f.%p
       init core file content: default
            global core dumps: enabled
       per-process core dumps: enabled
      global setid core dumps: disabled
 per-process setid core dumps: disabled
     global core dump logging: enabled

On some setups setid dumps disabled due to some reasons.

To fix this run:

# coreadm -e global-setid
# coreadm -e proc-setid
# coreadm -u
# coreadm
     global core file pattern: /var/core/core.%f.%p
     global core file content: default
       init core file pattern: /var/core/core.%f.%p
       init core file content: default
            global core dumps: enabled
       per-process core dumps: enabled
      global setid core dumps: enabled
 per-process setid core dumps: enabled
     global core dump logging: enabled

{X} Note: Don't edit /etc/coreadm.conf manually. Use commands above!

Squid process memory grows unlimited on Solaris 10 and above

On some setups this problem is critical. Regardless of the Squid's memory parameter or operating system memory settings Squid process under load increases indefinitely, resulting in swapping and catastrophic degradation of performance. In general, this leads to the inability to use Squid on this platform.

This issue is caused by a broken system memory allocator. When using a system which does not release the memory used by the cache.

Good news: Starting from release 8/11 Solaris contains new improved multi-threaded memory allocator library libmtmalloc.so (both 32 and 64 bit), which optimized for performance, heap fragmentation and memory consumption. It also including to Solaris 11 with performance improvements (read this article and this man page).

You can use it to solve memory problem by at least three different ways.

First: Globally preload. Whole system will use it.

Add this lines to /etc/profile:

# Preload mtmalloc library
export LD_PRELOAD_64

{X} Note: Some 32-bit applications from userland will be crash with this library. For example, vi editor from coreutils. You are warned!

Second: To refine previous problem you can add this variables to separate user profile from which squid will be starts or to startup script.

Third: The best way is link this memory library directly to Squid executables.

To do that just add -lmtmalloc to the end CXXFLAGS and CFLAGS options lists in Squid's ./configure command.

I.e., as in example below:

./configure '--prefix=/usr/local/squid' '--enable-external-acl-helpers=none' '--enable-icap-client' '--enable-ecap' '--enable-ipf-transparent' '--enable-storeio=ufs,aufs,diskd' '--enable-removal-policies=lru,heap' '--enable-devpoll' '--disable-wccp' '--enable-wccpv2' '--enable-http-violations' '--enable-follow-x-forwarded-for' '--enable-htcp' '--enable-cache-digests' '--enable-auth-negotiate=none' '--disable-auth-digest' '--disable-auth-ntlm' '--disable-url-rewrite-helpers' '--enable-storeid-rewrite-helpers=file' '--enable-log-daemon-helpers=file' '--with-openssl' '--enable-ssl-crtd' '--enable-zph-qos' '--disable-snmp' '--enable-inline' '--with-build-environment=POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64' 'CFLAGS=-O3 -m64 -mtune=core2 -pipe -lmtmalloc' 'CXXFLAGS=-O3 -m64 -mtune=core2 -pipe -lmtmalloc' 'CPPFLAGS=-I/opt/csw/include' 'LDFLAGS=-fPIE -pie -Wl,-z,now' 'PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig' --enable-build-info="Intercept/WCCPv2/SSL/CRTD/AUFS/DISKD/eCAP/64/GCC/mtmalloc Production"

This solution is preferable. It's completely solves memory problem and increases Squid performance, especially with aufs.

Note: Be sure you are add /usr/lib and /usr/lib/64 in system trusted linker path. To do that first run something like:

crle -c /var/ld/ld.config -l /lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/opt/csw/lib:/usr/sfw/lib
crle -64 -c /var/ld/64/ld.config -l /lib/64:/usr/lib/64:/opt/csw/lib/64:/usr/sfw/lib/64

{X} Don't use LD_LIBRARY_PATH! Use crle command instead!

Squid process memory grows unlimited with an interception proxy

The common place - Squid grows unlimited in interception mode on Solaris 10 and above with IPFilter. This also accomplish Squid session aborts (high TCP_MISS_ABORTED in access.log) periodically. Squid/OS/IPFilter restarts fix this, but temporary.

This problem occurs due to conservative IPFilter settings, especially with keep state option.

The default settings is too low for excessive Squid's sessions:

# ipf -T list | grep fr_state
fr_statemax     min 0x1 max 0x7fffffff  current 50000
fr_statesize    min 0x1 max 0x7fffffff  current 5737
fr_state_lock   min 0   max 0x1 current 0
fr_state_maxbucket      min 0x1 max 0x7fffffff  current 26
fr_state_maxbucket_reset        min 0   max 0x1 current 1

This leads to overflow firewall state tables and, following, to memory overflow, and, also, to randonly client sessions abort.

To fix this you can either tune-up IPFilter timings, or, more simple, increase states tables.

To do that you need (on running system):

First, disable IPFilter:

# svcadm disable ipfilter

Second, tune up settings above to be reasonable big:

# ipf -T fr_statemax=105000,fr_statesize=150001

Note: fr_statesize must be prime number, fr_statemax must be ~70% of fr_statesize.

Third, enable IPFilter again:

# svcadm enable ipfilter

And fourth, set this values to be permanent across reboot:

# vi /usr/kernel/drv/ipf.conf

/usr/kernel/drv/ipf.conf contents must be:

#name="ipf" parent="pseudo" instance=0;
name="ipf" parent="pseudo" instance=0 fr_statemax=105000 fr_statesize=150001;

Finally, run:

# devfsadm -i ipf

to update ipf driver settings.

Then restart your Squid. The problem is gone.

You can check your settings big enough by using memory monitor tools and command:

# ipfstat | grep lost
fragment state(in):     kept 0  lost 0  not fragmented 0
fragment state(out):    kept 0  lost 0  not fragmented 0
packet state(in):       kept 39767      lost 0
packet state(out):      kept 39403      lost 0

lost values must be zero all time.

Note: In some cases you may want to tune timing settings of IPFilter:


as described above (simple add this parameters to statemax and statesize).

Also you may want to adjust NAT table if we are enough buckets and decrease NAT/RDR rules table:

ipf_nattable_sz = 150001
ipf_natrules_sz = 127
ipf_rdrrules_sz = 127

Note: Be sure your TCP stack settings is not changed with ECN (tcp_ecn_permitted parameter) and WScale (tcp_wscale_always parameter). Also you can want to set ip_path_mtu_discovery to enabled (if your network environment uses PMTUD). This will minimize interruptions sessions, especially YouTube.

Squid 3.5.x and 4.x.x dies under workload when run under Solaris 10 and above

In most common setups on Solaris 10 and above you can experience problems with Squid 3.5.x and 4.x.x - it dies under heavy load, when reconfigure/restart or without any visible reasons during runtime. Sometimes you got assertions, sometimes FATAL errors with core dump.

Debug mostly often says, that async call got a timeout or something like.

To build Squid 3.5.x and 4.x.x more stable under this OS, you must know:

Starting with Solaris 10 operating system contains pthreads library as wrapper over system libthreads.

Note: Solaris native threads library is incompatible with POSIX threading library. As by as Squid uses pthreads by default, you will experience sporadically dies problems, especially when using aufs. So, may be better to continue use diskd on this OS.

So, to troubleshoot this issue and increase Squid's stability, you need to stop using POSIX threads, and - replace it with system native libthreads. Also note: Solaris libthreads is dependent from system libpthreads library.

To do that you need add -lthread and -lpthread to CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and LIBS:

./configure 'CFLAGS=-march=native -pipe -lthread -lpthread' 'CXXFLAGS=-march=native -pipe -lthread -lpthread' 'LDFLAGS=-m64' 'LIBS=-lthread -lpthread'

Also you can combine Solaris native threading library with multithreading navive memory allocator to increase performance and reduce contention (example):

### -lmtmalloc is Solaris-specific tune.
### -lthread is Solaris threading library
./configure '--prefix=/usr/local/squid' '--enable-translation' '--enable-external-acl-helpers=none' '--enable-icap-client' '--enable-ecap' '--enable-ipf-transparent' '--enable-storeio=ufs,aufs,diskd,rock' '--enable-removal-policies=lru,heap' '--enable-devpoll' '--disable-wccp' '--enable-wccpv2' '--enable-http-violations' '--enable-follow-x-forwarded-for' '--enable-arp-acl' '--enable-htcp' '--enable-cache-digests' '--enable-auth-negotiate=none' '--disable-auth-digest' '--disable-auth-ntlm' '--disable-url-rewrite-helpers' '--enable-storeid-rewrite-helpers=file' '--enable-log-daemon-helpers=file' '--with-openssl' '--enable-ssl-crtd' '--enable-zph-qos' '--disable-snmp' '--enable-inline' '--with-build-environment=POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64' 'CFLAGS=-march=native -O3 -m64 -pipe -lmtmalloc -lthread -lpthread' 'CXXFLAGS=-march=native -O3 -m64 -pipe -lmtmalloc -lthread -lpthread' 'LIBOPENSSL_CFLAGS=-I/opt/csw/include/openssl' 'CPPFLAGS=-I/opt/csw/include' 'LDFLAGS=-m64' 'LIBS=-lmtmalloc -lthread -lpthread' 'PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig' '--disable-strict-error-checking' --enable-build-info="Intercept/WCCPv2/SSL/CRTD/(A)UFS/DISKD/ROCK/eCAP/64/GCC/mtmalloc Production"

After configuration, run gmake && gmake install-strip as usual and restart your Squid.

Building Squid on Solaris 11 with --enable-ipf-transparent configuration

Solaris 11 has an issue, which preventing build Squid (any version starting from 3.5.x) on Solaris 11.

The root of evil is: Solaris 11 (up to 11.3) contains IPFilter headers from Solaris 10 (without changes). However, in Solaris 11 IPFilter binaries uses different type for integers (it is bug, unknown to Oracle AFAIK). So, Squid throw error during make and can't be build.

Here is workaround (better than install Linux instead of Solaris).

Find subdirectory include-fixed/netinet under your Solaris GCC installation, for example:


Find files ip_compat.h and ip_fil.h in this directory.

Replace it to this files:

ip_compat.h ip_fil.h

then configure and make squid.

Don't replace IPFilter system headers in /usr/include/netinet, you can break anything else. Just replace GCC-generated headers in directory above.


KnowledgeBase/Solaris (last edited 2017-12-16 08:14:49 by YuriVoinov)