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🔗 Intercepting traffic with PF on OpenBSD

by Chris Benech and Amos Jeffries

🔗 Outline

The Packet Filter (PF) firewall in OpenBSD 4.4 and later offers traffic interception using several very simple methods.

This configuration example details how to integrate the PF firewall with Squid for interception of port 80 traffic using either NAT-like interception and TPROXY-like interception.

:information_source: NAT configuration will only work when used on the squid box. This is required to perform intercept accurately and securely. To intercept from a gateway machine and direct traffic at a separate squid box use policy routing.

More on configuring Squid for OpenBSD can be found in the OpenBSD ports README file

🔗 Squid Configuration

🔗 Fully Transparent Proxy (TPROXY)

:warning: This configuration requires Squid-3.3.4 or later.

Squid requires the following build option:


Use the tproxy traffic mode flag to instruct Squid that it is receiving intercepted traffic and to spoof the client IP on outgoing connections:

http_port 3129 tproxy

🔗 NAT Interception proxy

:information_source: This is available as standard with the OpenBSD 5.0+ squid port/packages.

For Squid-3.4 or later:


For Squid-3.3 and Squid-3.2 support for this is not integrated with the –enable-pf-transparent build option. However the IPFW NAT component of Squid is compatible with PF. You can build Squid with these configure options:

--disable-pf-transparent --enable-ipfw-transparent

Use the intercept traffic mode flag to instruct Squid that it is receiving intercepted traffic and to use its own IP on outgoing connections (emulating NAT):

http_port 3129 intercept

🔗 pf.conf Configuration

In pf.conf, the following changes need to be made.

If you have “set skip” lines for your internal interfaces, remove them. They tell PF not to do any processing on packets coming in on those interfaces.

set skip on $int_if
set skip on $wi_if

🔗 OpenBSD 4.4 and later

On the machine running Squid, add a firewall rule similar to these…

For IPv6 traffic interception:

pass in quick inet6 proto tcp from 2001:DB8::/32 to port www divert-to ::1 port 3129
pass out quick inet6 from 2001:DB8::/32 divert-reply

For IPv4 traffic interception:

pass in quick on inet proto tcp from to port www divert-to port 3129
pass out quick inet from divert-reply

:warning: The divert-reply rules are needed to receive replies for sockets that are bound to addresses not local to the machine. If there is no divert-reply rule, cache.log will show a line similar to:

    2013/04/16 14:28:37 kid1|  FD 12, [Stopped, reason:Listener socket closed job49]: (53) Software caused connection abort

:x: PF offers a rdr-to option. However this not supported with any Squid. Use divert-to instead.

🔗 OpenBSD 4.1 to 4.3

:x: NOTE: OpenBSD older than 4.4 requires Squid-3.2 or older built with –enable-pf-transparent and only supports the NAT interception method.

    # redirect only IPv4 web traffic into squid
    rdr pass inet proto tcp from to any port 80 -> port 3129

    block in
    pass in quick on $int_if
    pass in quick on $wi_if
    pass out keep state

:information_source: Use rdr pass instead of rdr on … part of the way that PF evaluates packets, it would drop through and be allowed as is instead of redirected if you don’t use rdr pass.

🔗 Troubleshooting

🔗 No redirection is happening

Make sure you have removed any set skip on lines which would prevent PF from seeing packets.

Confirm which PF rules are being used to handle the traffic and ensure that your squid-related rules are not masked by other rules. While debugging, it may be useful to add a logging rule like “match log(matches) from <IP>” to the top of pf.conf. If you then reload the ruleset and monitor the pflog interface (e.g. “tcpdump -neipflog0 -s 500”) you will see a line of output for every rule which matches the packet, making it easier to confirm which rules affect the packets. This logs rule numbers; to lookup a rule by number, use “pfctl -sr -R 1”.

🔗 PfInterception: PF open failed: (13) Permission denied

This occurs if you are using –enable-pf-transparent and do not have write access to /dev/pf. It is recommended that you change to the getsockname() interface using “divert-to” pf rules with the following configure options:

--disable-pf-transparent --enable-ipfw-transparent

If you must use –enable-pf-transparent, change permissions on /dev/pf to allow write access to the userid running squid.

🔗 Testing

To test if it worked, use the nc utility. Stop squid and from the command line as root type in:

nc -l 3129

Then restart squid and try to navigate to a page.

You should now see an output like this:

<root:openbsd> [/root]
> nc -l 3129
GET / HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; GNotify
Host:  example.com
Connection: keep-alive

From there on out, just set your browsers up normally with no proxy server, and you should see the cache fill up and your browsing speed up.

⚠️ Disclaimer: Any example presented here is provided "as-is" with no support
or guarantee of suitability. If you have any further questions about
these examples please email the squid-users mailing list.

Categories: ConfigExample

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