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πŸ”— Configuring a Squid Server to authenticate against Kerberos

by Markus Moeller

:warning: Need to extract linked images and embed them

πŸ”— Outline

Two helpers are bundled with the Squid sources:

The following documentation applies to the helper Unix/Linux systems. The Windows helper doesnot need any kind of configuration, it works just out of the box.

πŸ”— Pre-requisites for Active Directory integration

Install msktutil package from http://fuhm.net/software/msktutil/ or https://code.google.com/p/msktutil/, or install Samba

πŸ”— krb5.conf Configuration

:warning: In IE the proxy must be specified as FQDN not as an IP-address :information_source: rc4-hmac should be listed as encryption type for windows 2003.

A minimal setup without DNS resolution of AD servers would be (MIT Kerberos example):

      default_realm = WIN2003R2.HOME
      dns_lookup_kdc = no
      dns_lookup_realm = no
      default_keytab_name = /etc/krb5.keytab
; for Windows 2003
      default_tgs_enctypes = rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
      default_tkt_enctypes = rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
      permitted_enctypes = rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5

; for Windows 2008 with AES
;      default_tgs_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
;      default_tkt_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
;      permitted_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5
; for MIT/Heimdal kdc no need to restrict encryption type

      WIN2003R2.HOME = {
              kdc = w2k3r2.win2003r2.home
              admin_server = w2k3r2.win2003r2.home

      .linux.home = WIN2003R2.HOME
      .win2003r2.home = WIN2003R2.HOME
      win2003r2.home = WIN2003R2.HOME

  kdc = FILE:/var/log/kdc.log
  admin_server = FILE:/var/log/kadmin.log
  default = FILE:/var/log/krb5lib.log

πŸ”— Create keytab

  1. Create keytab for HTTP/fqdn with msktutil. (If used together with samba net join use another computer name than the hostname used by net join)

     kinit administrator@DOMAIN
     msktutil -c -b "CN=COMPUTERS" -s HTTP/<fqdn> -h <fqdn> -k /etc/squid/HTTP.keytab --computer-name squid-http --upn HTTP/<fqdn> --server <domain controller> --verbose

    or for Windows 2008 for AES support

     msktutil -c -b "CN=COMPUTERS" -s HTTP/<fqdn> -h <fqdn> -k /etc/squid/HTTP.keytab --computer-name squid-http --upn HTTP/<fqdn> --server <domain controller> --verbose --enctypes 28 ```

:warning: has Windows Netbios limitations of 15 characters. :warning: msktutil requires the cyrus-sasl-gssapi ldap plugin to authenticate to AD ldap. :warning: because of a bug in msktutil 0.3.16 the <computer-name> must be lowercase

OR with Samba

  1. Join host to domain with net ads join
  2. Create keytab for HTTP/fqdn with net ads keytab
kinit administrator@DOMAIN

export KRB5_KTNAME=FILE:/etc/squid/HTTP.keytab

net ads keytab CREATE
net ads keytab ADD HTTP


:warning: Do not use this method if you run winbindd or other samba services as samba will reset the machine password every x days and thereby makes the keytab invalid !

OR with MIT/Heimdal kdamin tool

πŸ”— Squid Configuration File

Paste the configuration file like this:

auth_param negotiate program /usr/sbin/squid_kerb_auth
auth_param negotiate children 10
auth_param negotiate keep_alive on

The basic auth ACL controls to make use of it are:

acl auth proxy_auth REQUIRED

http_access deny !auth
http_access allow auth
http_access deny all

Add the following to the squid startup script (Make sure the keytab is readable by the squid process owner e.g. chgrp squid /etc/squid/HTTP.keytab; chmod g+r /etc/squid/HTTP.keytab )

export KRB5_KTNAME

Kerberos can keep a replay cache to detect the reuse of Kerberos tickets (usually only possible in a 5 minute window) . If squid is under high load with Negotiate(Kerberos) proxy authentication requests the replay cache checks can create high CPU load. If the environment does not require high security the replay cache check can be disabled for MIT based Kerberos implementations by adding the following to the startup script


πŸ”— Troubleshooting Tools

On Windows clients (e.g. IE or Firefox on XP, 2003, etc) use kerbtray or klist from Microsoft resource kit to list and purge tickets.

Wireshark traffic on port 88 (Kerberos) to identify Kerberos errors. (KRB5KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED is not an error, but an informational message to the client)

πŸ”— Further references

πŸ”— Step by Step Overview

  1. User login to Desktop
  1. User requests URL from Squid
  1. Desktop attempts to get a Service ticket HTTP/<squid-fqdn> from KDC as user < userid@DOMAIN.COM > Squid-2.jpeg

  2. Desktop sends request to Squid

  1. Squid verifies Kerberos ticket with help of keytab and replies after checking any additional access control settings The ticket contains the the user detail < userid@DOMAIN.COM > and squid can do authorisation decision based on it Squid-10.jpeg

  2. Step 2., 4. and 5. continue until the Kerberos cache with the received AS and TGS replies expires after about 8 hours (This depends on your kdc settings and/or your kinit options) and step 1. and 3 need to be done again which is usually transparent on Windows but may require a new kinit on Unix.

If squid_kerb_ldap is used the following steps are happening

  1. Squid β€œlogin” to Windows Active Directory or Unix kdc as user <HTTP/<fqdn-squid>@DOMAIN.COM>. This requires Active Directory to have an attribute userPrincipalname set to <HTTP/<fqdn-squid>@DOMAIN.COM> for the associated acount. This is usaully done by using msktutil.


  2. Squid determines ldap server from DNS by looking at SRV records


  3. Squid connects to ldap server


  4. If Kerberos authentication is supported by the ldap server Squid will request a service ticket <ldap/<ldap-server-fqdn> as user <HTTP/<squid-fqdn>@DOMAIN.COM>


  5. Squid sends LDAP search requests and receives replies using Kerberos authentication to the ldap server


⚠️ Disclaimer: Any example presented here is provided "as-is" with no support
or guarantee of suitability. If you have any further questions about
these examples please email the squid-users mailing list.

Categories: ConfigExample

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